When someone mentions about a ‘system’ they are generally referring to a collection of parts that make up the central system of the computer. The components of this central system include; memory, processing unit, input and output devices, integrated circuits, input and output devices, installed applications, and operating system. There are some more components of this central system that are not considered to be part of the main system. Some of these other components of the system are; hard drive, optical drive, CD-ROM, printer, scanner, speakers, modem and telephone line.
The main component of the system is the operating system. The operating system manages the overall operations of a computer. It controls all the software and hardware of the computer and makes sure it functions properly. Some of the operating system units are Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS, freezer/hard drive image, Freeware, etc.
An application software plays an important role in the functioning of a computer. This component of the system enables an individual or a company to create and save data. It is usually stored on the hard drives. These storage devices can be in many forms like CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk and others. Some of the information processors are the application software along with the programming language (CLN) and the database management system (DMS).
An instruction processor is an important component of the operating system. It is the one responsible for passing instructions to the other components. Instructions are generally sent through the instruction unit to the rest of the system. Other important components of the processor are the data acquisition and control system (DACS), memory unit, digital signal processing unit (DSP), data conversion unit (DUO) and input and output devices. The components mentioned above are combined together to form the execution engine of the CPU.
Another important component of the system is the central processing unit or CPU. The CPU consists of many small processing units like registers, counters, logic elements and others. The CPU performs the tasks assigned to it. Some of the common tasks performed by the CPU are loading the data into the RAM, setting the precedence levels for input and output the results thereof to the monitor, preparing the result display and so on. A microprocessor can also be integrated with a computer memory such as the RAM to form a centralized processing unit. However, the CPU can operate independently if it is aided by some other processing units.
The other parts of the computer system unit or the main internal components are the communication components. These components include the terminals, printers, fax machines, modems, wireless modems, and others. The most widely used modes of communication are the serial bus, desktop, PCMCIA, Universal Serial Bus, ATA and others. The invention of the USB and the Bluetooth technologies made it possible to use wireless internet in a computers. Bluetooth is a wireless personal area network that can be accessed using a Bluetooth enabled computer.
The third component of the system is the accounting system. The accounting system generates reports in the form of reports and tables. It is usually used to track the sales, inventory, and costs. This component consists of the main components mentioned earlier plus some additional ones. Examples of the additional components are the order entry system, the supply chain management system, the distribution management system and the audit system.
The last component is the graphics processor. This hardware component aids in the generation of digital images produced by the CPU. The screen output from the CPU is the analog output and the computer monitor displays the image on the screen. The motherboard carries out the transaction between the processor and the software through the PCI/PCIe slot. The mother board connects the peripherals of the PC to the CPU performs the function of the central processing units.